The Gods of Ancient Egypt

The beliefs and rituals surrounding the gods and goddesses that were worshipped in ancient Egypt formed the core of the religion of the time.

Deities represented natural forces and phenomena, and the Egyptians appeased them through offerings and rituals so that these forces
would continue to function according to divine order.

After the founding of the Egyptian state around 3100 BC, the authority to perform these tasks was controlled by the pharaoh, who claimed to
be the gods' representative and managed the temples
where the rituals were carried out.

The gods' characteristics were expressed in complex myths and
intricate relationships between deities: family ties,  hierarchies,
and the combining of separate gods into one.

Deities' diverse appearances in art—as animals, humans, and objects, symbolized their essential features.
  1. Amun
    A creator god, and the preeminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom.
  2. Aten
    Sun disk deity, and originally an aspect of the god Ra.
  3. Anubis
    God of embalming and protector of the dead.
  4. Horus
    The falcon god, linked with the sky and the sun. The son of Osiris and Isis.
  5. Isis
    Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, linked with motherhood, protection, and magic.
  6. Hathor
    An important goddess, linked with the sky, the sun, music and dance, and the afterlife.
  7. Ra
    The foremost Egyptian sun god, involved in creation and the afterlife.
  8. Ptah
    God of creation, the arts, fertility and of craftsmen.
  9. Sekhmet
    Goddess of fire, war, dance, love, and medicine. Consort of Ptah.
  10. Osiris
    God of death and resurrection who rules the underworld.
  11. Sobek
    Crocodile god, God of the Nile, the Army, military and fertility.
  12. Seth
    God of the desert, storms, disorder, violence. He killed and mutilated his brother Osiris.
Nun, the embodiment of the primordial waters, lifts the barque of the sun god Ra into the sky at the moment of creation.

Osiris, Anubis and Horus
Osiris with Isis nursing the infant Horus

The sun rises over the circular mound of creation as goddesses pour out the primeval waters around it

Ra (at center) travels through the underworld in his barque, accompanied by other gods[94]

Set and Horus adoring Ramesses in the small temple at Abu Simbel .

From right to left: Isis, her husband Osiris, and their son Horus, the protagonists of the Osiris myth, in a 22nd Dynasty statuette

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